Thursday, April 23, 2020
Road to Independence Notes free essay sample
People are reconsidering the policy of colonialism. 1. After WWII, people questioned whether dictatorship was a good idea. 2. Ã¢â¬Å"All nations should be free from the power of other nations. Ã¢â¬ 3. Keeping colonies had a high cost. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t worth it. 4. Colonized people pressed harder for freedom. Ex: British-held India II. A Movement Toward Independence A. The IndianÃ¢â¬â¢s strive to freedom intensifies. 1. British had power over India for 2 centuries. 2. Britain drafted Indians into WWII in 1939 without the consent of the the colonyÃ¢â¬â¢s representatives. . Gandhi launched civil disobedience and many who followed were arrested. 4. To gain favor of the Indians, Britain promised government changes after WWII, but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t offer freedom. Besides colonialism, India struggles with internal conflict. 1. They have religious disagreements. 350 million Hindus 100 million Muslims 2. The Congress Party (aka Indian National Congress: IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s national political party) was made up mostly of Hindus, and a few Muslims. C. The Muslim League is created. We will write a custom essay sample on Road to Independence Notes or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 1. The Muslim League (1906) is the organization against the mostly Hindu Congress Party, aimed to protect Muslim interest. . (The leader) Muhammad Ali Jinnah asked all Muslims to leave the Congress party. He would not accept independence from Britain if it meant staying under Hindu rule. III. Freedom Brings Turmoil A. The decision of who receives power is being made. 1. The British lost much wealth after WWII, and was ready to turn over their power, since keeping up with colonies was costly. 2. The power will either be given to Hindus or Muslims. B. Muslims resisted Hindu domination. 1. Rioting broke out and in 1946, there were 20,000 casualties in a 4 day clash in Calcutta. C. Pakistan was created. 1. To maintain peace, Britain decided to partition (division of Indian religions into separate nations; idea first brought up by Muslims) India. 2. North western and eastern part of India became Pakistan which was dominated by Muslims. D. Everything in India was being divided. 1. British granted India and Pakistan a month of independence in July 16, 1947. 2. Princes had to decide which nation theyÃ¢â¬â¢d join. 3. The civil service (courts, military, railways, police) was divided. 4. The differing religions had to decide where to go. E. One million people died during the move to their new nation. 1. Muslims killed Sikhs moving to India. 2. Sikhs and Hindus killed Muslims going to Pakistan. 3. Gandhi went to the Indian capital (Delhi) to ask for mercy, but was killed by a hindu extremist in January 30, 1948. F. Hindus and Muslims fight for Kashmir. 1. Kashmir is at the northern point of India next to Pakistan. 2. It had a Hindu ruler, but the majority of people living there was Muslim. 3. Fighting continued until UN arranged cease-fire in 1949. 4. One-third went to Pakistan (Muslims) and the rest to India (Hindus). IV. Modern India A. India has become the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest democracy. 1. India gained independence in August 15, 1947. 2. Jawaharlal Nehru (the independent nationÃ¢â¬â¢s first prime minister) addressed IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom. B. Nehru is the leader. 1. He served the first 17 years of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence as leader. 2. He was a devoted follower of Gandhi. 3. He emphasized democracy, unity, and economic modernization, and became very popular with all Indian groups. C. Nehru pushed India forward. 1. He led newly independent nations into making alliances with other non aligned nations. 2. He reorganized the states by language and pushed for industrialization and social reform. 3. He raised the status of those in lower class (lower castes and women). D. A new leader came. 1. Nehru died in 1964. 2. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, became prime minister in 1966, left office, and was re elected in 1980. E. Challenges set on Indira caused more violent acts and death. 1. Sikh extremists wanted an independent state. 2. The Golden Temple was the SikhÃ¢â¬â¢s religious center. 3. The Sikhs attacked symbols of Indian authority, so Indians troops overran the Golden Temple, killing 500 Sikhs and destroying sacred property. 4. Indira was gunned down by Sikh bodyguards and another murder spree occurred, killing thousands of Sikhs. . IndiraÃ¢â¬â¢s son, Rajiv, became prime minister, but lost power because of corruption. He was then killed. F. Atal Bihari Vajpayee faced problems. 1. The leader of the nationalist party of India, Vajpayee, faced challenges of overpopulation and strife among religions. 2. The struggle between India and Pakistan was bad, now that they became nuclear powers. India exploded a nuclear device in 1974. For 24 years, India improved nuclear capability in private. In 1998, 5 nuclear tests were conducted. Pakistanis also showed they had nuclear capabilities. The nuclear weapons of both rival groups became an international concern, especially because of Hindus and Muslims continuous struggle over Kashmir. V. Pakistan Copes with Freedom A. Pakistan was already very turbulent and had differences between West Pakistan and East Pakistan. B. The two regions of Pakistan struggled with each other. 1. A tidal wave hit East Pakistan and killed 266,000 residents in 1970, calling for international aid that West Pakistan was not eager in giving. 2. East Pakistan protested and called to end all ties with West Pakistan. C. Pakistan undergoes its own partition. 1. On March 26, 1971, East Pakistan became Bangladesh. 2. Civil war broke out. Indians sided with Bangladesh and Pakistan surrendered. 3. 1 million people died. 4. One-seventh of area and one-half of the population in Pakistan was lost. D. Pakistan is instable. 1. After the death of the first governor general of India, the nation had no strong leader and went through many military coups. First in 1958 by Ali Bhutto Second in 1977 by General Zia Third Benazir Bhutto, AliÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, became prime minister. Fourth, Sharif in 1997. VI. Bangladesh and Sri Lanka Struggle A. Bangladesh faces many problems. 1. War brought economic and communication issues in Bangladesh. 2. Sheik Mujibur Rahman became the first prime minister of Bangladesh. Interested more in power than making reparations 3. Bangladesh tries to become democratic and fraud and corruption was common. Recently, it has been more stable and Begum Khaleda Zia became prime minister in 2001. 4. Natural disasters were troublesome. Bangladesh (low-lying) is subject to cyclones, tidal waves, massive storms which floods lands, ruins crops, takes lives, and homes. 5. Rapid growth in population put stress on the economy. There is civil strife in Sri Lanka. . Sinhalese Buddhists and Tamil Hindus make up the two main groups in Sri Lanka. 2. Tamils wanted to become a separate Tamil nation and violence occurred in order to do so. Rajiv Gandhi and the president on Sri Lanka made an agreement that called Indian troops to disarm Tamil rebels. A civil war between Tamils and Sri Lankans still exists. New Nations in Africa: Chapter 34 Section 3 I. Setting the Stage A. Africa was also a nation victim to colonization. B. Like India, they were unwilling to return to colonization after WWII, so they also won their independence and went on to creating new African nations. II. Achieving Independence A. A movement is made for Black Heritage. 1. The French-speaking Africans and West Indians grew pride for traditional Africa. 2. The Negritude movement (movement to celebrate African culture, heritage, and values) was formed. B. WWII changed the views of colonies and colonizers, which helped Africa gain independence from 1950s-1960s. 1. The African joined Europeans in WWII to defend freedom, and were unwilling to return to colonization. 2. The European colonizers developed morale and wondered whether it was a good idea to still hold colonies. In addition to morale, maintaining colonies was costly and wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t viewed as something worth losing money for. C. Africa achieved independence in a unique way. 1. Unlike other colonized areas that pushed for independence, Africa was colonized indirectly and directly. Those who were ruled indirectly were able to enjoy limited self-rule and were ruled by local officials. They achieved independence more easily. Those ruled directly were governed at all levels by foreigners and did not have any self rule. To get independence, they had to fight wars. D. Africa struggled even after they gained their independence. . They had to start from scratch: creating a new gov. , and establishing postcolonial economy. 2. Internal conflicts made it hard create stable nations. When colonized by Europeans, Africa was separated by random and many tribes who shared the same culture were divided and enclosed with rival groups, causing violence. III. Ghana Leads the Way A. The Gold Coast, a British colony, achieves full independence. 1. The Gold Coast (South of the Sahara) achieved independence, so British allowed for Africans to be nominated for legislative council. 2. However, they wanted full freedom and created a group. . Kwame Nkrumah (leader of the nonviolent group) organized strikes and boycotts, and was also imprisoned many times, (starting in 1947) eventually being able to liberate the Gold Coast from the British government. B. Good intentions called for opposition against Nkrumah. 1. The Gold Coast became Ghana (from the Ghana Kingdom of Africa) after it received its independence in 1957. 2. Nkrumah, th e first prime-minister and president for life, pushed for industrialization by building new roads, schools, and health facilities. 3. His programs were too costly, and people began to oppose him. C. Ghana still continues to struggle. 1. Nkrumah was criticized for neglecting economic issues. 2. When in China (1966) he was replaced by the police and army in Ghana. 3. The power shifts between civilian and military rule, and Ghana struggles economically. 4. 2000 marks the first open election in Ghana. IV. Fighting for Freedom A. The British is forced to allow Kenyan self-government. 1. The British were unwilling to give Kenyans independence because theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve taken over prized farmland in the northern highlands of Kenya. 2. The Kenyans had 2 developments which forced British to surrender. Jomo KenyattaÃ¢â¬â¢s (Kenyan nationalist) strong leadership. The Mau Mau, a secret society of mostly native Kenyan farmers forced out of the highlands by British people. B. The Mau Mau fight for independence. 1. Guerilla tactics were used to push out the British from the highlands. 2. Kenyatta had no connection to the Mau Mau but did not stop them from fighting for their freedom. 3. Kenyatta was imprisoned for about a decade. 4. Kenya was granted independence in 1963, however, 10,00 Africans and 100 settlers died. C. After gaining independence, Kenya still faced some struggles from poor leadership. 1. Kenyatta became the president and worked to reunite various groups in his nation, but he died in 1978. 2. He was succeeded by a weak leader, Daniel arap Moi. 3. Under MoiÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership was opposition to his one-party rule, corruption, and conflicts between ethnicities killing hundreds and making thousands homeless. 4. He left office in 2002, and a new party gained power through elections. D. Algeria wins independence through battle. 1. Algeria had a population of 1 million French and 9 million Arabs and Berber Muslims. 2. French did not want to share political power with the natives even after WWII. . The FLN (Algerian National Liberation Front) would fight for freedom, and upon hearing this, the French sent half a million troops to fight the FLN. 4. The FLN won and gained independence in July 1962. E. Uncertainty within Algeria calls for civil war. 1. The FLN leader, Ahmed Ben Bella, becomes president and attempts to make Algeria follow socialism, but is overthrown. 2. From 19 65-1988, Algeria tried to modernize, but failed. Religious fundamentalists wanted to make Algeria an Islamic state because they were dissatisfied with the current government and high unemployment rates. 3. The Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) won elections in 1990 and 1991, but the government and army refused the results. 4. Civil war broke out between Islamic militants and the government, and goes on and off until this day. V. Civil War in Congo and Angola A. The people of Congo were unprepared for independence, and it led to turmoil. 1. Belgians colonized and plundered Congo taking all its riches and resources such as rubber and copper. 2. They gave no social services to the natives of Congo, and did not prepare them for independence. 3. They granted Congo (aka Zaire from 1971-1997) independence in 1960, which cause upheaval, and civil war. B. Congo goes through two leaders. 1. Years of civil war sprung up, and Mobutu Sese Seko (aka Colonel Joseph Mobutu) seized power in 1965. He renamed Congo to Zaire and ruled it for 32 years. He held control over Zaire with force, one-party rule, and bribing supporters with gifts. He withstood rebellions. 2. In 1997, he was overthrown by Laurent Kabila (rebel leader). Zaire was renamed The Democratic Republic of Congo. C. Kabila wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the leader people hoped for, and a new leader rises. 1. He became president and promised a democracy, but never delivered it. 2. Civil war broke out again, and rebel groups wanted to overthrow Kabila. . He was assassinated by a bodyguard in 2001. 4. Joseph Kabila, his son, took power and pushed for peace. 5. Rebels stopped rebelling in 2002 in hope that the peace may come. D. Angola (South West of Congo) fought for independence. 1. Angola was ruled by the Portuguese who were unwilling to let go of their colony. 2. An independence movement broke out and Portugal sent 50,000 troops to end it, which wiped out half of PortugalÃ¢â¬â¢s budget. 3. The cost of war and the warÃ¢â¬â¢s opposition in Portugal called for them to withdraw from Angola in 1975. E. Civil war broke out in Angola. 1. Angola became a new nation, and the MPLA (Communist leaning Ã¢â¬Å"Popular Movement for the Liberation of AngolaÃ¢â¬ ) declared itself as the government. 2. Rebel groups fought against the government for power. 3. 50,000 Cuban troops and Soviet Union supported the MPLA. 4. South Africa and the U. S. supported the UNITA (the major opposition to the MPLA; Ã¢â¬Å"National Union for the Total Independence of AngolaÃ¢â¬ ) 5. The MPLA and UNITA abandoned many cease-fire agreements, but in 2002, a peace accord was agreed to and the civil war ended. Conflicts in the Middle East: Chapter 34 Section 4 I. Setting the Stage A. By the end of WWII, Jewish finally gained its own state, which proved to have bad consequences. 1. The Jewish gained a state that was located by the Mediterranean Sea. 2. It consisted of mostly Arabs who rejected the creation of a Jewish state. 3. Palestinians claimed Jewish states to be theirs, therefore opposing Jewish states. 4. Wars were fought between Jews and Arabs, and Jews and Palestinians. II. Israel Becomes a State A. Palestinians, Jews, and Arabs all claim the same lands (Israel, West Bank, and the Gaza Strip in modern day Palestine). 1. JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ reason: 3,000 before, Jewish Kings ruled the lands from Jerusalem. . PalestiniansÃ¢â¬â¢ reason: land was theirs since Jewish exile on A. D. 135. 3. ArabsÃ¢â¬â¢ reason: their conquest of the lands in the 7th century (600s). B. The Jews wanted to return to Palestine and gain a Jewish state centuries after their exile. 1. The Jewish were unable to gain their own state after their exile, and dispersed around the world (Diaspor a). 2. Zionists (people who favored a Jewish state in Palestine) started returning to their homeland during the 19th and 20th centuries (1800s-1900s). C. A British idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine cause sparks between the Jews and Palestinians. 1. The British directed Palestine (League of NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ commands) as a result of the loss of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in WWI. 2. Many Jews were in Palestine, and pressed for their own nation. 3. Palestinians opposed the idea, so when Secretary Sir Arthur Balfour of Britain proposed creating a Jewish state while keeping the rights of non-Jewish communities (Balfour Declaration) and the plan failed, tensions rose between Palestinians and Jews. D. The U. S. and many European nations felt sympathy towards the Jews, who were targeted in the Holocaust, so they devised a plan that would give Jews what they desired. 1. The UN General Assembly voted for partition in Palestine, one part being a Palestinian state, the other being a Jewish state, and Jerusalem being an international city owned by no one. 2. The Jews made up 34% of the population but gained 55% of the land. E. The partition was set, although Muslims and Palestines rejected it. 1. Ã¢â¬Å"The UN has no right to make such a proposal without first consulting the majority who will be affected by it. Ã¢â¬ - Muslims and Palestinians. 2. David Ben Gurion (leader of Jews in Palestine) announced that the independent nation of Israel was formed on May 14, 1948. III. Israel and Arab States in Conflict A. War broke out between Israeli and Arab states. 1. The first one (won by Israel) was a day before Israel became a nation, where Islamic states (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi, Arabia, and Syria invaded Israel. B. The partition wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t fully effective because of fighting. 1. Israel seized half of Palestine in 1948-1949. 2. 600,000 Palestinians left to nearby UN sponsored refugee camps. 3. Arabs also seized Palestinian lands. C. War broke out in 1956 during the Suez Crisis. 1. Egypt seized the Suez Canal. 2. Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egyptian president) sent troops to seized the canal controlled by British because he was angry that the U. S. and British stopped financially supporting EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s Aswan Dam. 3. Britain formed an alliance with France and israel to regain the Suez canal. 4. Israel defeated the Egyptians using air support of their European allies. 5. The war ended when the U. S. and Soviets forced Israel and Europeans out of Egypt, ultimately giving Egypt the Suez Canal by the end of the Suez Crisis. D. Another war broke out in 1967, called the Six-Day War. 1. Nasser and Arab allies, equipped with Soviet tanks and aircraft were ready to confront Israel and close off IsraelÃ¢â¬â¢s outlet to the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba. 2. Israelis knew Arabs would attack, so the struck airfields in Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Syria, and ground forces defeated Arab states in this Six-Day War. 4. Israelis gained the lands around them (Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula, The Golden Heights, and the West Bank). 5. They served as buffers for future attacks. 6. Palestinians living in Jerusalem chose Jordanian citizenship, and others not living in Jerusalem went other Jewish control. E. A fourth War broke out in October 1973, called the Yom Kippur War. 1. Anwar Sadat,(Egyptian president who succeeded Nasser) planned an Arab attack on Israel during Yom Kippur. . Sadat was able to reconquer land lost in the Six-Day War. 3. Golda Meir (prime minister of Israel during the Yom Kippur War) counterattacked and regained most the land. 4. After weeks of fighting, a truce was declared. F. Palestinians pushed for recognition and its own state. 1. The UN had given Palestinians its own state during the partition, but the land given was seized by Is raelis during their vast amount of wars. 2. The PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) was organized by Palestinian officials in 1964, and initially consisted mostly of social workers, like teachers, lawyers.