Friday, August 21, 2020

Frank Lloyd Wright Essay Example For Students

Forthright Lloyd Wright Essay Forthright Lloyd Wright was conceived as Frank Lincoln Wright on June 8, 1867. He was conceived in Richland Center, which is in southern Wisconsin. His dad, William Carey Wright, was a performer and an evangelist. His mom, Anna Lloyd-Jones was an educator. It is said that his mom set pictures of extraordinary structures in youthful Franks nursery as a feature of preparing him up from the soonest conceivable second to be a planner. Wright invested some energy experiencing childhood with a homestead possessed by his uncle, which was situated close to spring Green, Wisconsin. He was of Welch legacy, and was raised in the Unitarian Religion. Wright quickly examined structural building at the college of Wisconsin in Madison, and afterward moved to Chicago to work at a compositional firm. In 1887, he was employed as a designer by the firm of Alder and Sullivan. At that point, the firm was structuring Chicagos Auditorium Building. Wright in the end turned into the head sketcher, just as the pioneer of the organizations private plans. In the wake of getting these duties, Wright started to plan and apply his own compositional thoughts. In 1889, he wedded his first spouse, Catherine Tobin. He additionally started planning houses, which was against his organizations approach since they were required to follow the structures sent to them, not make their own. At the point when his manager found this, Frank was terminated. His home structures, in any case, were mind boggling. They indicated the beginning of Wrights low, protecting rooflines, the noticeable quality of the focal chimney, and mind boggling geometric plans on the two entryways and windows. Wright began his own firm in 1893, working out of a studio that was worked in onto his home in Oak Park, a suburb of Chicago. Somewhere in the range of 1893 and 1901, 49 structures by Wright were constructed. During this period he started to build up his thoughts, which would meet up in his ?Prairie House? idea. Into 1909, he created and refined the prairie style, and established this idea in engineering, and his specialty of this early gainful period in his life is likewise considered as a major aspect of expressions of the human experience and specialties development, on the grounds that a large number of his plans not just had plans for the structure of the house, yet thoughts of enriching the inside too. This gainful stage in Wrights profession finished in 1909, when he left his significant other and five youngsters to go to Germany. He was joined there by Mamah Borthwick Cheney, the spouse of a previous customer and now his better half. From 1912 to 1914, Wright and Cheney lived respectively at Taliesin, a home he structured close to his uncles ranch in Spring Green, Wisconsin. This finished when a crazed hireling killed Chaney and six others, likewise setting a fire that devastated a large portion of Taliesin. During the years 1914 to 1932, Wright reconstructed Taliesin, separated from his first spouse, wedded and isolated structure another lady (somewhat because of the way that he invested some energy in prison), and met his third wife, Olgivanna Milanoff. His building plans during this period remembered the Imperial Hotel for Tokyo, Japan, and numerous California homes. Hardly any commissions were finished close to the finish of this period, however Wright did talks to different engineers, and distributed articles, remembering An Autobiography for 1932. Wrights yield turned out to be progressively composed and individualized, with the assistance of various students who aided plan detail and site oversight. His most renowned work, Fallingwater, was planned in 1936. He likewise started dealing with a venture called Taliesin West in Arizona. The Taliesin Associated Architects, The Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture, and the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation are living inheritances of what Mr. Wright established in 1932. .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4 , .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4 .postImageUrl , .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4 .focused content territory { min-tallness: 80px; position: relative; } .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4 , .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4:hover , .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4:visited , .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4:active { border:0!important; } .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4 .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4 { show: square; change: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-progress: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; obscurity: 1; change: haziness 250ms; webkit-progress: mistiness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4:active , .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4:hover { murkiness: 1; progress: darkness 250ms; webkit-progress: darkness 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4 .focused content zone { width: 100%; position: rela tive; } .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4 .ctaText { fringe base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: striking; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content enhancement: underline; } .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4 .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; text style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4 .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; outskirt: none; outskirt range: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; textual style weight: intense; line-stature: 26px; moz-fringe span: 3px; content adjust: focus; content improvement: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-tallness: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: supreme; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .ue6f8e91821 a7106f16f59994b0004ce4 .focused content { show: table; tallness: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .ue6f8e91821a7106f16f59994b0004ce4:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: BUSINESS LOYALTY EssayFew structures were delivered during the war years, yet the G.I. Bill brought numerous new students when the war finished. This post-war period as far as possible of his life was the most profitable. He got 270 house commissions, and structured and constructed the value tower high rise, the Guggenheim Museum, and the Marin County Civic Center. Wright never resigned; he died on April 9, 1959, at 92 years old in Arizona. He was covered in the Graveyard at Unity Chapel at Taliesin in Wisconsin. In 1985, Olgivanna Wright died, and one of her desires was to have Frank Lloyd Wrights remains incinerated and the cinders put close to hers at Taliesin West. Regardless of much contention, this was finished. The inscription at his Wisconsin gravesite peruses, ?Love of a thought is the adoration for God.?

Sunday, July 12, 2020

How to Choose the Best GRE Essay Samples

How to Choose the Best GRE Essay SamplesYour job as a student is to choose the best GRE Essay samples. It is so easy for students to get these test-prep materials, but they might end up getting the wrong materials that they can actually help them score higher on the GRE. There are people who tell you that the better GRE essay samples will help you tremendously to score higher. However, there are some who tell you that if you really want to succeed in this test, you need to understand how the GRE essay works.You have two options if you want to get your hands on the best GRE essay samples. One is to purchase these and then to study them yourself. The other is to buy them from other students who have taken the exam recently. Students have the option of selecting whichever option is most convenient for them. This article will tell you about the best way to get these books so that you will know which resources you should choose to help you achieve your goal of scoring highly on the GRE.So me schools that provide test-prep materials have websites where you can purchase them. This is a good option because it makes sure that you can get the materials fast and easily. However, the great thing about purchasing these books from a website is that you can compare prices, which means that you can go for the best bargain.The best place to get the best GRE essay samples is from an authorized online reseller. If you are not familiar with resellers, they are salesmen who sell your books at very low prices. These sellers actually earn commissions from the price you pay for their books. However, with the help of the internet, you can get the best deal on them without having to face the inconvenience of visiting a bookstore or even making an order.Another reason why these resellers can provide you with the best GRE test-prep materials is that they do not have the stock available. They only have a certain amount of sample paper so that they can sell them. That is why these resellers have a lot of samples that they have been able to get from students who have taken the test recently. They will give you the papers you want, the paper that you need, and even the sample essay that you cannot find anywhere else. In fact, if you are not too sure about the paper that you want, you can ask them for a sample that has already been used by someone else.The best place to buy the best GRE test-prep resources is through a website where you can get them for very cheap prices. If you prefer to buy these products from a website that does not sell them, you can choose to make a purchase from one of the major search engines that specializes in searching for the best bargains. You can also find websites that sell GRE resources from all over the world. All you have to do is type in the keywords 'GRE resources' and the right products will be listed for you to choose from.Before you decide which websites to choose from, you should ensure that they are reliable. It is best to choose a site that is listed by popular search engines like Google or Yahoo. You can also choose to visit forums that review all the websites offering GRE resources and you can get unbiased reviews that you can compare against the prices they are offering.For those who don't have the time to do this, they can buy the best GRE paper samples online, which is the fastest way to get the right paper. All you have to do is type in the words 'GRE paper samples' and you will be given thousands of samples to choose from.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Dr. Bree s Organizational Behavior Class About Emotional...

PeopleSmart was an organized summary of everything taught in Dr. Bree’s Organizational Behavior class about emotional intelligence (EI). Since I am a person who enjoys lists and processes I enjoyed the systematic approach of learning, trying and living each of the skills. (Although I have to include, that having recently participated in Dr. Bree’s class, I was put-off from doing any of the self-evaluations found in the beginning.) I’m always looking for nuggets of information to help explain why I behave in certain ways and there were many of those in this book. Incorporating true-to-life examples of how each skill works in practice, both in a work environment as well as within personal relationships, illustrated clearly the points made in each chapter. Following up these examples with a method of improving in each area and common excuses preventing the implementation of these new skills was very beneficial and I often felt they addressed a specific resistance I had. I also appreciated the validation of my belief about interacting with other people. The author, in his preface, stated unequivocally that â€Å"Next to faith in God, I came to the conclusion that the best source to place your faith is in other people.† That is a rare statement but one with which I am in complete agreement. I too am a survivor of cancer and possibly it is in those kind of life threatening situations that you are especially blessed to find the good in people. Investing time in learning how to better

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Glorifying the Tudor Dynasty Shakespeares Richard III...

Arts in England flourished and prospered during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Furthermore, â€Å"The Golden Age† was characterized by the Queen’s patronizing of theatre, which lead it to gain popularity among England. The sixteenth and early seventeenth century witnessed a period of English nationalism, evidently shown through diffused texts in the English language, rather than in Latin. Additionally, the Queen supported playwrights such as William Shakespeare, which lead to depictions of Elizabethan society in his plays. Consequently, influences from London and the royal family influenced plays such as Richard III. Specifically, the play affected the glorification of the Tudors, leading to the villanization of former king Richard III. This†¦show more content†¦Therefore if a prince wants to maintain his rule, he must be prepared not to be virtuous, and to make use of this or not according to need† (â€Å"The Influence of Machiavelli on Shakespeareâ₠¬ ). Shakespeare adapts these tenants to construct a power thirsty character. Consequently, while the London elite was introduced to these ideals, Shakespeare shaped the overall plot of the play to exemplify the discussed the power quest introduced by Machiavelli. This results in Richard’s actions that lead him to kill his brother and manipulate his family into getting the throne. Additionally, the plot of the play portrays a turning point for English history, the rise of the Tudor dynasty. In combination with Machiavelli’s tenants, the fact that Elizabeth was the patron of the arts also influenced Shakespeare’s piece. Shakespeare evidently courts the Queen with the twisted characterization of Richard that leads to her current role as Queen of England. For example, in Act V scene V Richmond exclaims, â€Å"God and your arms be praised, victorious friends, the day is ours, the bloody dog is dead† (Shakespeare 353). Here, Shakespeare clearly presents the death of Richard III as a victory for the successors while dehumanizing the character by referring to him as a dog. In the history of England, the power struggle within ruling families is not a new theme. However, by

Cholecystitis and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Question: Discuss about the Cholecystitis and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Answer: Introduction: Acute Cholecystitis is a disease that occurs due to severe inflammation of gall bladder and is also called as Gallstone disease. Sedentary lifestyle incorporating no physical activities, unhealthy diet and lifestyle oriented diseases such as morbid obesity, diabetes and others has led to the extreme prevalence of acute cholecystitis. Furthermore, Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy is a surgical treatment that is prevailing worldwide for the treatment of cholecystitis. The treatment is undertaken with optimal patient-oriented nursing care and formulation of condition oriented multidisciplinary team for the regulation of the treatment. This multidisciplinary team consist of different healthcare professional working all together for the regulation of effective treatment of the patient (Tornqvist et al., 2016). The topic of this report is a case study on acute cholecystitis and the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy targeting its merits and demerits. This report is an analysis the case of Joan Middleton who is suffering from acute cholecystitis, targeting the health alterations from the predetermined results, appropriate nursing methodologies and multidisciplinary team required for the treatment of the prevailing condition. Health condition: Cholecystitis is a medical condition which occurs due to the inflammation of gall bladder that is a profound resource of bile. The bile and its products are responsible for the digestion and absorption of fats and lipids such as triglycerides or phospholipids in small intestine. Medical condition cholecystitis hardens this bile blocking the passage and causing the inflammation of the gall bladder (Gurusamy et al., 2013). This condition is medically treated with the help of surgery called as laparoscopic cholecystectomy that undertakes removal of gall bladder with non-invasive technique with lesser post-operative pain. This surgery allows the patients to get discharged from the hospital same day of the operation or the very next day. Joan Middleton is a middle aged woman who is living a sedentary lifestyle and is suffering from lifestyle related diseases such as obesity and diabetes type 2. Furthermore, she has been diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and has undergone laparoscopic cho lecystectomy for the treatment. This surgery allows the patient to get discharged same day as of surgery or the very next day. But in her case, she has again developed same symptoms prior her surgery. Explanation of such health alteration could be the post-operative complications of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. This is considered to be one of the safest remedial treatment for cholecystitis but contains certain complications depending upon different conditions of the patients. In case of Joan Middleton, the signs and symptoms occurring in her post operation that are high pulse rate, high blood pressure, high fever and high respiration rate has led to the predetermination of certain possible complications such as bile leakage, severe anaesthetic implications, bile duct injury during surgery and post-cholecystectomy syndrome (Bickel et al., 2016). Bile leakage occurs when the bile leaks into the abdomen of the body passing through the tube which is blocked by certain clips required to seal the tube from one end after the removal of the gall bladder. Furthermore, another possible condition is bile duct injury that may happen during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy that leads to the leakage of the bile into abdomen or injury to other adjacent organs, arteries and capillaries. Besides this, complications can also arise from the anaesthesia provided to the patient during the surgery. The general anaesthesia leads to respiratory complications such as high respiration rate, high pulse rate, and high heart beat along with increased body temperature. Lastly, post-cholecystectomy syndrome can also be a possible reason of the altered signs and symptoms shown by Joan Middleton. This complication mainly occurs due to leakage of bile and persist for many days and months. One or more of these complications are the possible reasons of the ha phazard signs and symptoms shown by Joan Middleton after the conduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Brooke et al., 2015). Nursing Settings: Effective patient-oriented nursing is required in case of Joan Middleton along with optimal implementation of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Nursing interventions priorities include balancing the equilibrium in respiration activity, prevention of any complications, optimal reporting on the existing condition, treatment and procedures and effective discussion with other healthcare professionals (Ignatavicius Workman, 2015). The safeguard interventions to be provided by nurse must be in accordance with optimal assessment of pain, promotion of comfort and rest, relaxing the patient, frequent communication, restricting and maintenance of dietary intake by restructuring the food consumption and analysing the laboratory results for future interventions. Different nursing care plan on the analysis on ineffective breathing pattern, acute pain and risk of infection are required for the optimal imparting of the treatment to Joan Middleton. Ineffective breathing pattern will undertake observation on respiration process and assistance on effective breathing (Lawrence, 2015). Acute pain will undertake optimal dispensation of medication and monitoring of the pain with the help of signs and symptoms. Furthermore, optimal implementation and regulation of non-pharmacological interventions such as massages, therapies and other to provide relief to the severity. Lastly, risk of infection will undertake the determination of infection and other conditions that leads to alteration in the predetermined results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This analysis is conducted with the help of personal protective equipment (PPE) (Dunphy et al., 2015). The analysis is required to be conducted on the probable source of the complications such as infection due to medication, bile leakage, anaesthesia and others. In addition to this, optimal reporting is an essential measure required to be undertaken for the consideration by other healthcare professionals. Furthermore, di scharge measures such as maintenance of the oxygen requirement, creating awareness on post-operative care to be undertaken by patient and his family and minimization of complications must be undertaken within two days of the discharge as prescribed. Oxygen requirement determines the rate of respiration, pulse rate, heartbeat of Joan Middleton and will help in undertaking optimal measures to lower it down. Awareness must be instilled on the post-operative care to be maintained after getting discharged from hospital at home by the patient and the family of the patient. Furthermore, balancing and maintaining of the prevalent signs and symptoms is essential in the hospital and as well as at home in order to minimize any sort of degrading implications to the patient (Doenges, Moorhouse Murr, 2014). Multidisciplinary Team: A multidisciplinary team or multiagency team is a group of different healthcare professionals working together for the remedial treatment of the patient. The multidisciplinary team approach the disease or illness by determining different possible solutions for the prevailing condition and planning a possible treatment that must be non-invasive and patient oriented. These two factors determines the extent of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to be delivered by different healthcare professionals. Such team must consist of different patient-oriented professionals for targeting the severe condition (Weaver, Dy Rosen, 2014). Optimal treatment is conducted through the regulation of effective communication among all healthcare professionals with the help of reporting and change of shift report (cosr). Furthermore, the multidisciplinary team containing healthcare professionals must be accessible to all medications and non-pharmacological interventions and are required to be trained and experienced in their respective field for the effective imparting of the safeguard intervention. Besides this, they must be able to provide intervention in accordance with the laws and legislation of the specific country. Lastly, involvement of the patient and the family of the patient must be undertaken at the every step of the intervention as it will help in better response to the imparted treatment by the healthcare professionals to the patient (Santiago et al., 2014). In case of Joan Middleton, different healthcare professional can be radiologists, nurses, pharmacists, general physician, gastroenterologist, and physiotherapist. Radiologist is required for the undertaking of x-rays, computerized tomography scan, ultrasound and other essential scans required by the condition of Joan Middleton for the analysis of the existing issue. Nurses are pivot for the regulation of the treatment as they assist all other healthcare professionals and regulates the pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions required by Joan Middleton. Pharmacists will provide medication as per the prescription on the haphazard signs and symptoms shown by Joan Middleton post operation (Basta et al., 2016). Gastroenterologists and general physician will assist the disease of Joan Middleton by undertaking detailed analysis on the organs present in the abdomen further determining possible remedial solutions to the altered signs and symptoms. Physiotherapist will help reduci ng the fat in Joan Middleton leading to reduction and maintenance of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. Furthermore, physiotherapist may help in reducing the pain occurring in the body (Karavias et al., 2015). Conclusion: This case study determines that sedentary lifestyle leads to many other critical and severe conditions such as cholecystitis besides obesity and diabetes mellitus. Cholecystitis can treated with the help of laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is a non-invasive surgical method of remedial treatment of cholecystitis. This surgical method is extremely effective and allows the discharge of the patient same day but carries certain complications such as bile leakage, injury to adjacent organs in abdomen, anaesthetic implications and post-cholecystectomy syndrome. These complications are required to be effectively treated within short period of time as repercussions can be devastating leading to ultimate death. Besides this, patient-oriented multidisciplinary team is required for the treatment of Joan Middleton. This team is required to contain different healthcare professionals from different sectors such as physiologist, general physician, gastroenterologist, nurses and pharmacist for the optimal regulation of the remedial treatment of the condition of Joan Middleton. The optimal formulation, implementation and regulation of concoction of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as prescribed by the multidisciplinary team will lead to the discharge of Joan Middleton within two days. References: Basta, Y. L., Baur, O. L., van Dieren, S., Klinkenbijl, J. H., Fockens, P., Tytgat, K. M. (2016). Is there a Benefit of Multidisciplinary Cancer Team Meetings for Patients with Gastrointestinal Malignancies?.Annals of surgical oncology,23(8), 2430-2437. Bickel, A., Hoffman, R. S., Loberant, N., Weiss, M., Eitan, A. (2016). Timing of percutaneous cholecystostomy affects conversion rate of delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for severe acute cholecystitis.Surgical endoscopy,30(3), 1028-1033. Brooke?Smith, M., Figueras, J., Ullah, S., Rees, M., Vauthey, J. N., Hugh, T. J., ... Yokoyama, Y. (2015). Prospective evaluation of the International Study Group for Liver Surgery definition of bile leak after a liver resection and the role of routine operative drainage: an international multicentre study.HPB,17(1), 46-51. Doenges, M. E., Moorhouse, M. F., Murr, A. C. (2014).Nursing care plans: Guidelines for individualizing client care across the life span. FA Davis. Dunphy, L. M., Winland-Brown, J., Porter, B., Thomas, D. (2015).Primary Care: Art and Science of Advanced Practice Nursing. FA Davis. Gurusamy, K. S., Davidson, C., Gluud, C., Davidson, B. R. (2013). Early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for people with acute cholecystitis.Cochrane Database Syst Rev,6. Ignatavicius, D. D., Workman, M. L. (2015).Medical-surgical nursing: Patient-centered collaborative care. Elsevier Health Sciences. Karavias, D., Kourea, H., Sotiriadi, A., Karnabatidis, D., Karavias, D. (2015). Gangrenous cholecystitis related to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma.Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery,19(11), 2093-2095. Lawrence, R. (2015).Acute Cholecystitis. S. R. Eachempati, L. Reed (Eds.). Springer International Publishing. Santiago, C., Lazar, L., Jiang, D., Burns, K. E. (2014). A survey of the attitudes and perceptions of multidisciplinary team members towards family presence at bedside rounds in the intensive care unit.Intensive and Critical Care Nursing,30(1), 13-21. Trnqvist, B., Waage, A., Zheng, Z., Ye, W., Nilsson, M. (2016). Severity of Acute Cholecystitis and Risk of Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injury During Cholecystectomy, a Population-Based CaseControl Study.World journal of surgery,40(5), 1060-1067. Weaver, S. J., Dy, S. M., Rosen, M. A. (2014). Team-training in healthcare: a narrative synthesis of the literature.BMJ quality safety, bmjqs-2013.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Road to Independence Notes free essay sample

People are reconsidering the policy of colonialism. 1. After WWII, people questioned whether dictatorship was a good idea. 2. â€Å"All nations should be free from the power of other nations. † 3. Keeping colonies had a high cost. It wasn’t worth it. 4. Colonized people pressed harder for freedom. Ex: British-held India II. A Movement Toward Independence A. The Indian’s strive to freedom intensifies. 1. British had power over India for 2 centuries. 2. Britain drafted Indians into WWII in 1939 without the consent of the the colony’s representatives. . Gandhi launched civil disobedience and many who followed were arrested. 4. To gain favor of the Indians, Britain promised government changes after WWII, but didn’t offer freedom. Besides colonialism, India struggles with internal conflict. 1. They have religious disagreements. 350 million Hindus 100 million Muslims 2. The Congress Party (aka Indian National Congress: India’s national political party) was made up mostly of Hindus, and a few Muslims. C. The Muslim League is created. We will write a custom essay sample on Road to Independence Notes or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 1. The Muslim League (1906) is the organization against the mostly Hindu Congress Party, aimed to protect Muslim interest. . (The leader) Muhammad Ali Jinnah asked all Muslims to leave the Congress party. He would not accept independence from Britain if it meant staying under Hindu rule. III. Freedom Brings Turmoil A. The decision of who receives power is being made. 1. The British lost much wealth after WWII, and was ready to turn over their power, since keeping up with colonies was costly. 2. The power will either be given to Hindus or Muslims. B. Muslims resisted Hindu domination. 1. Rioting broke out and in 1946, there were 20,000 casualties in a 4 day clash in Calcutta. C. Pakistan was created. 1. To maintain peace, Britain decided to partition (division of Indian religions into separate nations; idea first brought up by Muslims) India. 2. North western and eastern part of India became Pakistan which was dominated by Muslims. D. Everything in India was being divided. 1. British granted India and Pakistan a month of independence in July 16, 1947. 2. Princes had to decide which nation they’d join. 3. The civil service (courts, military, railways, police) was divided. 4. The differing religions had to decide where to go. E. One million people died during the move to their new nation. 1. Muslims killed Sikhs moving to India. 2. Sikhs and Hindus killed Muslims going to Pakistan. 3. Gandhi went to the Indian capital (Delhi) to ask for mercy, but was killed by a hindu extremist in January 30, 1948. F. Hindus and Muslims fight for Kashmir. 1. Kashmir is at the northern point of India next to Pakistan. 2. It had a Hindu ruler, but the majority of people living there was Muslim. 3. Fighting continued until UN arranged cease-fire in 1949. 4. One-third went to Pakistan (Muslims) and the rest to India (Hindus). IV. Modern India A. India has become the world’s largest democracy. 1. India gained independence in August 15, 1947. 2. Jawaharlal Nehru (the independent nation’s first prime minister) addressed India’s freedom. B. Nehru is the leader. 1. He served the first 17 years of India’s independence as leader. 2. He was a devoted follower of Gandhi. 3. He emphasized democracy, unity, and economic modernization, and became very popular with all Indian groups. C. Nehru pushed India forward. 1. He led newly independent nations into making alliances with other non aligned nations. 2. He reorganized the states by language and pushed for industrialization and social reform. 3. He raised the status of those in lower class (lower castes and women). D. A new leader came. 1. Nehru died in 1964. 2. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, became prime minister in 1966, left office, and was re elected in 1980. E. Challenges set on Indira caused more violent acts and death. 1. Sikh extremists wanted an independent state. 2. The Golden Temple was the Sikh’s religious center. 3. The Sikhs attacked symbols of Indian authority, so Indians troops overran the Golden Temple, killing 500 Sikhs and destroying sacred property. 4. Indira was gunned down by Sikh bodyguards and another murder spree occurred, killing thousands of Sikhs. . Indira’s son, Rajiv, became prime minister, but lost power because of corruption. He was then killed. F. Atal Bihari Vajpayee faced problems. 1. The leader of the nationalist party of India, Vajpayee, faced challenges of overpopulation and strife among religions. 2. The struggle between India and Pakistan was bad, now that they became nuclear powers. India exploded a nuclear device in 1974. For 24 years, India improved nuclear capability in private. In 1998, 5 nuclear tests were conducted. Pakistanis also showed they had nuclear capabilities. The nuclear weapons of both rival groups became an international concern, especially because of Hindus and Muslims continuous struggle over Kashmir. V. Pakistan Copes with Freedom A. Pakistan was already very turbulent and had differences between West Pakistan and East Pakistan. B. The two regions of Pakistan struggled with each other. 1. A tidal wave hit East Pakistan and killed 266,000 residents in 1970, calling for international aid that West Pakistan was not eager in giving. 2. East Pakistan protested and called to end all ties with West Pakistan. C. Pakistan undergoes its own partition. 1. On March 26, 1971, East Pakistan became Bangladesh. 2. Civil war broke out. Indians sided with Bangladesh and Pakistan surrendered. 3. 1 million people died. 4. One-seventh of area and one-half of the population in Pakistan was lost. D. Pakistan is instable. 1. After the death of the first governor general of India, the nation had no strong leader and went through many military coups. First in 1958 by Ali Bhutto Second in 1977 by General Zia Third Benazir Bhutto, Ali’s daughter, became prime minister. Fourth, Sharif in 1997. VI. Bangladesh and Sri Lanka Struggle A. Bangladesh faces many problems. 1. War brought economic and communication issues in Bangladesh. 2. Sheik Mujibur Rahman became the first prime minister of Bangladesh. Interested more in power than making reparations 3. Bangladesh tries to become democratic and fraud and corruption was common. Recently, it has been more stable and Begum Khaleda Zia became prime minister in 2001. 4. Natural disasters were troublesome. Bangladesh (low-lying) is subject to cyclones, tidal waves, massive storms which floods lands, ruins crops, takes lives, and homes. 5. Rapid growth in population put stress on the economy. There is civil strife in Sri Lanka. . Sinhalese Buddhists and Tamil Hindus make up the two main groups in Sri Lanka. 2. Tamils wanted to become a separate Tamil nation and violence occurred in order to do so. Rajiv Gandhi and the president on Sri Lanka made an agreement that called Indian troops to disarm Tamil rebels. A civil war between Tamils and Sri Lankans still exists. New Nations in Africa: Chapter 34 Section 3 I. Setting the Stage A. Africa was also a nation victim to colonization. B. Like India, they were unwilling to return to colonization after WWII, so they also won their independence and went on to creating new African nations. II. Achieving Independence A. A movement is made for Black Heritage. 1. The French-speaking Africans and West Indians grew pride for traditional Africa. 2. The Negritude movement (movement to celebrate African culture, heritage, and values) was formed. B. WWII changed the views of colonies and colonizers, which helped Africa gain independence from 1950s-1960s. 1. The African joined Europeans in WWII to defend freedom, and were unwilling to return to colonization. 2. The European colonizers developed morale and wondered whether it was a good idea to still hold colonies. In addition to morale, maintaining colonies was costly and wasn’t viewed as something worth losing money for. C. Africa achieved independence in a unique way. 1. Unlike other colonized areas that pushed for independence, Africa was colonized indirectly and directly. Those who were ruled indirectly were able to enjoy limited self-rule and were ruled by local officials. They achieved independence more easily. Those ruled directly were governed at all levels by foreigners and did not have any self rule. To get independence, they had to fight wars. D. Africa struggled even after they gained their independence. . They had to start from scratch: creating a new gov. , and establishing postcolonial economy. 2. Internal conflicts made it hard create stable nations. When colonized by Europeans, Africa was separated by random and many tribes who shared the same culture were divided and enclosed with rival groups, causing violence. III. Ghana Leads the Way A. The Gold Coast, a British colony, achieves full independence. 1. The Gold Coast (South of the Sahara) achieved independence, so British allowed for Africans to be nominated for legislative council. 2. However, they wanted full freedom and created a group. . Kwame Nkrumah (leader of the nonviolent group) organized strikes and boycotts, and was also imprisoned many times, (starting in 1947) eventually being able to liberate the Gold Coast from the British government. B. Good intentions called for opposition against Nkrumah. 1. The Gold Coast became Ghana (from the Ghana Kingdom of Africa) after it received its independence in 1957. 2. Nkrumah, th e first prime-minister and president for life, pushed for industrialization by building new roads, schools, and health facilities. 3. His programs were too costly, and people began to oppose him. C. Ghana still continues to struggle. 1. Nkrumah was criticized for neglecting economic issues. 2. When in China (1966) he was replaced by the police and army in Ghana. 3. The power shifts between civilian and military rule, and Ghana struggles economically. 4. 2000 marks the first open election in Ghana. IV. Fighting for Freedom A. The British is forced to allow Kenyan self-government. 1. The British were unwilling to give Kenyans independence because they’ve taken over prized farmland in the northern highlands of Kenya. 2. The Kenyans had 2 developments which forced British to surrender. Jomo Kenyatta’s (Kenyan nationalist) strong leadership. The Mau Mau, a secret society of mostly native Kenyan farmers forced out of the highlands by British people. B. The Mau Mau fight for independence. 1. Guerilla tactics were used to push out the British from the highlands. 2. Kenyatta had no connection to the Mau Mau but did not stop them from fighting for their freedom. 3. Kenyatta was imprisoned for about a decade. 4. Kenya was granted independence in 1963, however, 10,00 Africans and 100 settlers died. C. After gaining independence, Kenya still faced some struggles from poor leadership. 1. Kenyatta became the president and worked to reunite various groups in his nation, but he died in 1978. 2. He was succeeded by a weak leader, Daniel arap Moi. 3. Under Moi’s leadership was opposition to his one-party rule, corruption, and conflicts between ethnicities killing hundreds and making thousands homeless. 4. He left office in 2002, and a new party gained power through elections. D. Algeria wins independence through battle. 1. Algeria had a population of 1 million French and 9 million Arabs and Berber Muslims. 2. French did not want to share political power with the natives even after WWII. . The FLN (Algerian National Liberation Front) would fight for freedom, and upon hearing this, the French sent half a million troops to fight the FLN. 4. The FLN won and gained independence in July 1962. E. Uncertainty within Algeria calls for civil war. 1. The FLN leader, Ahmed Ben Bella, becomes president and attempts to make Algeria follow socialism, but is overthrown. 2. From 19 65-1988, Algeria tried to modernize, but failed. Religious fundamentalists wanted to make Algeria an Islamic state because they were dissatisfied with the current government and high unemployment rates. 3. The Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) won elections in 1990 and 1991, but the government and army refused the results. 4. Civil war broke out between Islamic militants and the government, and goes on and off until this day. V. Civil War in Congo and Angola A. The people of Congo were unprepared for independence, and it led to turmoil. 1. Belgians colonized and plundered Congo taking all its riches and resources such as rubber and copper. 2. They gave no social services to the natives of Congo, and did not prepare them for independence. 3. They granted Congo (aka Zaire from 1971-1997) independence in 1960, which cause upheaval, and civil war. B. Congo goes through two leaders. 1. Years of civil war sprung up, and Mobutu Sese Seko (aka Colonel Joseph Mobutu) seized power in 1965. He renamed Congo to Zaire and ruled it for 32 years. He held control over Zaire with force, one-party rule, and bribing supporters with gifts. He withstood rebellions. 2. In 1997, he was overthrown by Laurent Kabila (rebel leader). Zaire was renamed The Democratic Republic of Congo. C. Kabila wasn’t the leader people hoped for, and a new leader rises. 1. He became president and promised a democracy, but never delivered it. 2. Civil war broke out again, and rebel groups wanted to overthrow Kabila. . He was assassinated by a bodyguard in 2001. 4. Joseph Kabila, his son, took power and pushed for peace. 5. Rebels stopped rebelling in 2002 in hope that the peace may come. D. Angola (South West of Congo) fought for independence. 1. Angola was ruled by the Portuguese who were unwilling to let go of their colony. 2. An independence movement broke out and Portugal sent 50,000 troops to end it, which wiped out half of Portugal’s budget. 3. The cost of war and the war’s opposition in Portugal called for them to withdraw from Angola in 1975. E. Civil war broke out in Angola. 1. Angola became a new nation, and the MPLA (Communist leaning â€Å"Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola†) declared itself as the government. 2. Rebel groups fought against the government for power. 3. 50,000 Cuban troops and Soviet Union supported the MPLA. 4. South Africa and the U. S. supported the UNITA (the major opposition to the MPLA; â€Å"National Union for the Total Independence of Angola†) 5. The MPLA and UNITA abandoned many cease-fire agreements, but in 2002, a peace accord was agreed to and the civil war ended. Conflicts in the Middle East: Chapter 34 Section 4 I. Setting the Stage A. By the end of WWII, Jewish finally gained its own state, which proved to have bad consequences. 1. The Jewish gained a state that was located by the Mediterranean Sea. 2. It consisted of mostly Arabs who rejected the creation of a Jewish state. 3. Palestinians claimed Jewish states to be theirs, therefore opposing Jewish states. 4. Wars were fought between Jews and Arabs, and Jews and Palestinians. II. Israel Becomes a State A. Palestinians, Jews, and Arabs all claim the same lands (Israel, West Bank, and the Gaza Strip in modern day Palestine). 1. Jews’ reason: 3,000 before, Jewish Kings ruled the lands from Jerusalem. . Palestinians’ reason: land was theirs since Jewish exile on A. D. 135. 3. Arabs’ reason: their conquest of the lands in the 7th century (600s). B. The Jews wanted to return to Palestine and gain a Jewish state centuries after their exile. 1. The Jewish were unable to gain their own state after their exile, and dispersed around the world (Diaspor a). 2. Zionists (people who favored a Jewish state in Palestine) started returning to their homeland during the 19th and 20th centuries (1800s-1900s). C. A British idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine cause sparks between the Jews and Palestinians. 1. The British directed Palestine (League of Nations’ commands) as a result of the loss of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in WWI. 2. Many Jews were in Palestine, and pressed for their own nation. 3. Palestinians opposed the idea, so when Secretary Sir Arthur Balfour of Britain proposed creating a Jewish state while keeping the rights of non-Jewish communities (Balfour Declaration) and the plan failed, tensions rose between Palestinians and Jews. D. The U. S. and many European nations felt sympathy towards the Jews, who were targeted in the Holocaust, so they devised a plan that would give Jews what they desired. 1. The UN General Assembly voted for partition in Palestine, one part being a Palestinian state, the other being a Jewish state, and Jerusalem being an international city owned by no one. 2. The Jews made up 34% of the population but gained 55% of the land. E. The partition was set, although Muslims and Palestines rejected it. 1. â€Å"The UN has no right to make such a proposal without first consulting the majority who will be affected by it. †- Muslims and Palestinians. 2. David Ben Gurion (leader of Jews in Palestine) announced that the independent nation of Israel was formed on May 14, 1948. III. Israel and Arab States in Conflict A. War broke out between Israeli and Arab states. 1. The first one (won by Israel) was a day before Israel became a nation, where Islamic states (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi, Arabia, and Syria invaded Israel. B. The partition wasn’t fully effective because of fighting. 1. Israel seized half of Palestine in 1948-1949. 2. 600,000 Palestinians left to nearby UN sponsored refugee camps. 3. Arabs also seized Palestinian lands. C. War broke out in 1956 during the Suez Crisis. 1. Egypt seized the Suez Canal. 2. Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egyptian president) sent troops to seized the canal controlled by British because he was angry that the U. S. and British stopped financially supporting Egypt’s Aswan Dam. 3. Britain formed an alliance with France and israel to regain the Suez canal. 4. Israel defeated the Egyptians using air support of their European allies. 5. The war ended when the U. S. and Soviets forced Israel and Europeans out of Egypt, ultimately giving Egypt the Suez Canal by the end of the Suez Crisis. D. Another war broke out in 1967, called the Six-Day War. 1. Nasser and Arab allies, equipped with Soviet tanks and aircraft were ready to confront Israel and close off Israel’s outlet to the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba. 2. Israelis knew Arabs would attack, so the struck airfields in Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Syria, and ground forces defeated Arab states in this Six-Day War. 4. Israelis gained the lands around them (Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula, The Golden Heights, and the West Bank). 5. They served as buffers for future attacks. 6. Palestinians living in Jerusalem chose Jordanian citizenship, and others not living in Jerusalem went other Jewish control. E. A fourth War broke out in October 1973, called the Yom Kippur War. 1. Anwar Sadat,(Egyptian president who succeeded Nasser) planned an Arab attack on Israel during Yom Kippur. . Sadat was able to reconquer land lost in the Six-Day War. 3. Golda Meir (prime minister of Israel during the Yom Kippur War) counterattacked and regained most the land. 4. After weeks of fighting, a truce was declared. F. Palestinians pushed for recognition and its own state. 1. The UN had given Palestinians its own state during the partition, but the land given was seized by Is raelis during their vast amount of wars. 2. The PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) was organized by Palestinian officials in 1964, and initially consisted mostly of social workers, like teachers, lawyers.